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Library Catalog No. CYCL1728h

“Memory” and “Mnemonic Tables.” Articles from Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopædia, both the original 2-volume edition of 1728, and the 2-volume Supplement, by George Lewis Scott et al., of 1753.
     1st edition: Cyclopædia, or, an universal dictionary of arts and sciences. Containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify’d thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine: the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial: the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial: with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c. among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c: the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning. Compiled from the best authors, dictionaries, journals, memoirs, transactions, ephemerides, &c. in several languages, by E. Chambers. 2 vols. London: Printed for J. and J. Knapton [and 18 others], 1728. 2.528–529, s.v. Memory.
     Supplement: A supplement to Mr. Chambers's Cyclopædia: or, universal dictionary of arts and sciences. In two volumes. 2 vols. London: Printed for W. Innys and J. Richardson, R. Ware, J. and P. Knapton, T. Osborne, S. Birt, T. and T. Longman, D. Browne, C. Hitch and L. Hawes, J. Hodges, J. Shuckburgh, A. Millar, J. and J. Rivington, J. Ward, M. Senex, and the Executors of J. Darby, MDCCLIII [1753]. 2, s.v. Memory; 2, s.v. Mnemonic Tables.

by Ephraim Chambers (1st edn.), rev. by George Lewis Scott et al. (Supplement)

e-Copyright © 2013–2018 < http://she-philosopher.com/library.html >

First Issued:  January 2013
Revised (substantive):  2 May 2018

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Part II: Chambers’ two Cyclopædia articles on memory

BELOW: Letterpress title-page for vol. 1 of Ephraim Chambers’ two-volume Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1728).

facsimile of early-18th-century title-page in 2 colors

Chambers’s new Cyclopaedia brand adapted both concept and content from John Harris’s Lexicon Technicum: or, an Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves (1704–10).
  “Lexicons covering specific sciences, e.g., chemistry and medicine, had begun to appear from the sixteenth century.” (Yeo, 22n10) But Harris’s take on the genre differed from such predecessors as Captain John Smith’s Sea-Mans Grammar (1626, with reissues in 1627, 1636, 1652, 1653, 1691, 1692, 1699), Thomas Blount’s Glossographia, or, A Dictionary, Interpreting ... Hard Words (1656, with reissues in 1659, 1661, 1670, 1674, 1681), and Joseph Moxon’s first mathematical dictionary in English, Mathematicks Made Easy, or, a Mathematical Dictionary Explaining the Terms of Art and Difficult Phrases Used in Arithmetick, Geometry, Astronomy, Astrology, and other Mathematical Sciences ... (1679, with reissues in 1692, 1700, 1701).
  In his Preface, Harris distinguished his Lexicon Technicum from earlier published dictionaries which he claimed propagated “cant” as science, were out-of-date and “defective in the Modern Improvements of Mathematical and Physical Learning,” or were “too much filled with the School Terms, to be usefully instructive.” In contrast, Harris’s dictionary project was no longer specialized, but encyclopedic, as noted so clearly in the grand claim to universality on his title-pages, which featured an atypically laconic, poster-style layout.
  Hans Sloane extolled the new brand in his book review of Harris’s Lexicon published in the Royal Society’s scientific journal, noting that “The design of this Dictionary is different from that of most others; for here are explained not only the Terms which are used in every Art and Science, but likewise the Arts and Sciences themselves; in most of which the Reader will find something that is new, and all things deliver’d in a clear and regular method.” Moreover, “The Author hath been very full and particular in all the parts of the Mathematicks,” but “In Logick, Metaphysicks, Ethicks, Grammar, Rhetorick, &c. he is designedly very short; giving usually the bare explication of the Words and terms of those Arts.” (Philosophical Transactions, 1704, No. 292, pp. 1699 and 1702)
  “Despite its title [Harris’s Lexicon Technicum] belongs within the world of the eighteenth-century Encyclopedia, rather than that of its more specialized forerunners. Ephraim Chambers’s first Cyclopedia of 1728 made almost identical claims in its title, followed the same format, and only marginally enlarged on the scope of Harris’s work.” (Bowles, 22–3)
  Chambers, too, used design in order to distinguish his Cyclopaedia brand from Harris’s, the difference between the two often reducing more to matters of style than substance. Chambers’s title-pages were more verbose and richly colored than were Harris’s, in keeping with the more discursive and rounded style — replete with an elaborate web of links and cross-references — which Chambers preferred for dictionary articles.
  From the beginning, Chambers was more focused on the big picture than was Harris. The two Cyclopaedia volumes were always intended to be a pair, and followed one another serially (A through HYTH in vol. 1, I through ZYTHUM, with supplementary Addenda, in vol. 2), so that there was no repetition of the sort for which Harris was criticized (e.g., the two different articles on memory in vol. 1 and vol. 2 of Harris’s Lexicon Technicum). Such distinctions between the brands, embodied in their title-pages, were also apparent to readers: “The Cyclopaedia is not absolutely the first scientific dictionary which hath appeared in this country. It was preceded by Harris’s Lexicon Technicum, the third edition of which was published in 1735. It has great merit in the mathematical articles, and Chambers was under obligations to it in this respect. Harris’s design, however, was not so comprehensive as that of Mr. Chambers; so that the latter gentleman may, perhaps, be considered as the first person who had the ability to form the plan, and attempt the execution, of a complete circle of the Arts and Sciences.” (Biographia Britannica, 2nd edn., ed. by Kippis et al., 1784, iii. 427)

BELOW: Title-page for vol. 1 of the two-volume Supplement (1753) to Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1728).

facsimile of mid-18th-century title-page in 2 colors

The competition between brands — Harris’s Lexicon Technicum (1704–10) and Chambers’s Cyclopaedia (1728) — carried over into the Supplement for each.
  The 1753 Supplement to Chambers’s Cyclopaedia distinguished itself from the earlier A Supplement to Dr. Harris’s Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1744) in several ways. Like the original Cyclopaedia, the Cyclopaedia Supplement was issued in two over-sized volumes, instead of just one, and the physical heft of the work spoke for itself, suggesting unparalleled completeness and value.
  Where the single-volume Lexicon Technicum Supplement (1744) switched to a verbose title-page, in the style of Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, the two-volume Cyclopaedia Supplement (1753) opted for brevity, in the style of Harris’s Lexicon Technicum, which it embellished with visual aids.
  The simple title — A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopædia: or, Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. In Two Volumes — simultaneously proclaimed the preeminence of “Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopædia” as an authoritative work known to all, without need of further elaboration, and again appropriated the tagline originally used by Harris for his Lexicon Technicum (“an Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves”), here serving as an artful metonym for the quality and universality of dictionary content.
  An allegorical tail-piece depicting Pallas Athena — “the Goddess of wisdom, and of all the Arts, &c.” (Blount, Glossographia, 1656, s.v. Minerva) — with a great book in her lap, surrounded by instruments, the theory and uses of which were detailed in the book, added to the visual rhetoric. The printer’s ornament adapted motifs from John Sturt’s frontispiece engraving for the original Cyclopaedia which had also shown verba juxtaposed with res: as Harris first put it, “That which I have aimed at, is to make it a Dictionary, not only of bare Words but Things; and that the Reader may not only find here an Explication of the Technical Words, or the Terms of Art made use of in all the Liberal Sciences, and such as border nearly upon them, but also those Arts themselves; and especially such, and such Parts of them as are most Useful and Advantagious to Mankind.” (Harris, Lexicon Technicum, 1704, Preface, a2r)

C Y C L O P Æ D I A   A R T I C L E


(1728 edn., Vol. 2, pp. 528–529)

MEMORY, a Power, or Faculty of the Mind, whereby it retains or recollects the simple Ideas, or the Images, and Remembrance of Things we have seen, imagin’d, understood, &c. See SOUL; see also POWER, FACULTY, &c.

Of all the Faculties, there is none harder to account for, or that has perplex’d Philosophers more, than the Memory. Some will have it a mere Organ, as the Eye, Ear, &c. Dr. Hook, in an Essay towards a mechanical Account of Memory, makes it to consist in a stock of Ideas or Images, form’d occasionally by the Mind, out of the fine Parts of the Brain, and disposed, or laid by in order. Des Cartes and his Followers maintain, That the animal Spirits exciting a Motion in the most delicate Fibres of the Brain, leave a kind of Traces or Footsteps, which occasion our Remembrance. Hence it happens, that by passing several times over the same things, the Spirits becoming accustom’d to the same Passages, leave them open, and so make their way without any Effort or Labour; and in this consists the Ease wherewith we recollect such Ideas. Thus Wine is found to sharpen the Memory, in regard the Spirits of the Wine put the animal Spirits in Motion, and agitate the Fibres of the Brain the more briskly. See IDEA, BRAIN, TRACE, REMEMBRANCE, &c.

Father Malbranche expresses his Notion of Memory thus:

“It being granted, that all our different Perceptions are owing to Changes happening in the Fibres of the principal Part of the Brain, wherein the Soul more immediately resides, the Nature of the Memory is obvious: for as the Leaves of a Tree, that have been folded for some time, in a certain manner, preserve a Facility or Disposition to be folded again in the same manner; so the Fibres of the Brain, having once received certain Impressions by the Course of the animal Spirits, and by the Action of Objects, preserve, for some time, a Facility to receive the same Disposition. Now ’tis in this Facility that Memory consists; for we think on the same Things, when the Brain receives the same Dispositions. Further, as the animal Spirits act sometimes more briskly, and sometimes more languidly on the Substance of the Brain; and as sensible Objects make much deeper, and more lasting Impressions, than the Imagination alone; ’tis easy, on this Scheme, to conceive why we don’t remember all Things alike: Why a Thing, for instance, seen twice, is represented more vividly to the Mind, than another seen but once: Why Things that have been seen, are usually remembred more distinctly, than those that have been only imagin’d, &c.” See HABITUDE.

“Old Men are defective in Memory, and cannot learn any thing without much difficulty; because they want animal Spirits to make new Traces, and because the Fibres of the Brain are become too hard to receive, or too moist to retain such Impression. For the same reason, those who learn with the greatest Ease, forget the soonest; in regard when the Fibres are soft and flexible, Objects make a slight Impression, which the continual Course of animal Spirits easily wears off: On the contrary, the Fibres of those who learn slowly, being less flexible, and less subject to be shaken, the Traces are more deeply engraven, and last the longer. From all which Observations it follows, that the Memory is absolutely dependant on the Body; being impair’d or strengthen’d, according to the Changes that befall the Body; a Fall, the Transports of a Fever, &c. being frequently found to erase or blot out all the Traces, to bear away all the Ideas, and to cause an univerfal Forgetfulness.”

The chief Difficulty that clogs this Doctrine of Memory, is to conceive how such an infinite number of Things, as the Head is stored withal, should be ranged in so much order in the Memory, as that the one should not efface the other: and how in such a prodigious Assemblage of Traces impress’d on the Brain, the animal Spirits should awake precisely those which the Mind has occasion for. See SPIRITS.

Seneca says of himself, that by the mere Effort of his natural Memory, he was able to repeat two thousand Words upon once hearing them, each in its order; tho’ they had no Dependance or Connexion on each other. After which he mentions a Friend of his, Portius Latro, who retained in his Memory all the Declamations he had ever spoke, and never had his Memory fail him, even in a single Word. He also mentions Cyneas, Ambassador to the Romans from King Pyrrhus, who in one day had so well learnt the Names of his Spectators, that the next he saluted the whole Senate, and all the Populace assembled, each by his Name. Pliny says, that Cyrus knew every Soldier in his Army by Name; and L. Scipio, all the People of Rome. Charmidas, or rather Carneades, when required, would repeat any Volume found in the Libraries; as readily as if he were reading. Dr. Wallis tells us, that without the assistance of Pen and Ink, or any thing equivalent, he was able in the dark, by mere force of Memory, to perform Arithmetical Operations, as Multiplication, Division, Extraction of Roots, &c. to forty Places. Particularly, that in February 1671/2, at the request of a Foreigner (by Night, in Bed) he propos’d to himself a Number of fifty-three Places, and found its square Root to twenty-seven Places; and without ever writing down the Number, dictated ’em from his Memory, at his next Visit, twenty Days afterwards.

Local or Artificial MEMORY, is an Art or Invention, by means whereof, the Memory is supposed to be aided, strengthen’d, and inlarg’d. This Art seems to consist in nothing else but a certain Method of coupling or associating Ideas of Things to be remembred; with the Ideas of other Things, already dispos’d orderly in the Mind, or that are before the Eyes. It is of an old standing, having been practis’d by many of the antient Orators; some whereof are said to have made use of Paintings, Images, and Emblems, on this occasion: Tho’ others contented themselves with the Parts, Members, Ornaments, Furniture, and other Circumstances of the Place where they were to speak. Muretus tells us, that a young Man of Corsica pretending to do wonders this way, Muretus put him to the Tryal; and upon dictating to him two or three thousand Words, some Greek, some Latin, some Barbarous; all without any relation to each other, and the greatest part without any Meaning at all: the Artist immediately, and without any hesitation, or the least stumbling or misplacing, repeated them all, from first to last, in the same order wherein they had been dictated; and this done, beginning where he ended, he repeated them all backwards, from last to first. Adding, that this was but a slight Essay of his Memory; and that he would undertake to repeat thirty-six thousand Words in the same manner.

The truth is, this Art seems better calculated for retaining things without any Coherence or Dependence on one another, as mere Words or Sounds, &c. than for things where Reason or Judgment are any way required.

Raim. Lully took so much pains with it, that it now goes by his Name, being call’d Lully’s Art.


S U P P L E M E N T   A R T I C L E


(1753 edn., Vol. 2, n. pag.)

MEMORY (Cycl.)—Many have been the attempts, in all ages, to assist the Memory. Some have had recourse to medicine, such as Horstius, Marsilius Ficinus, Johnston, and others. That good health, a good digestion, and a mind free from care, are helps in this respect, is an old observation. That attention, application, frequent recapitulation, are necessary, is known to every one. But whether, besides natural health and parts, and the exercise of our faculties, art may not give a farther assistance to Memory, has been a question. Simonides is said to be the first who found out the art of Memory. His method was by a choice of places and images, as a repository of ideas; such, for instance, as a large house divided into several apartments, rooms, closets, &c. All these, and their order, were to be rendered extremely familiar to the imagination and Memory. Then, whatever was to be remembered, was by some symbolical representation or another, as an anchor for navigation, to be connected with some part of the house, or other artificial repository, in a regular manner. Cicero and Quinctilian give us some account of this method, and speak of it with respect. Several moderns have attempted improvements of artificial Memory. There was a collection of various treatises of this kind published at Leipzig; this and Bruxius’s Simonides Redivivus are commended by Morhof. Paschius gives us some account also of several authors who have treated of this art. It is certainly of use in history and chronology. The chief artifice, in this respect, is to form an artificial word, the letters of which shall signify numbers. Hence a date or aera may more easily be recapitulated and remembred than without such a contrivance. This invention is mentioned as a secret known to few, by Paschius. It has been prosecuted lately in England, by Dr. Grey.

The method is this : To remember any thing in history, chronology, geography, &c. a word is formed, the beginning whereof being the first syllable or syllables of the thing to be remembred, does, by frequent repetition, of course draw after it the latter parts, which is so contrived as to give the answer. Thus in history, the deluge happened in the year before Christ 2348. This may be signified by the word Del-etok; Del standing for deluge, and etok for 2348. How these words come to signify these things, or contribute to the remembring them, is now to be shewn.

The first thing to be done, is to learn exactly the following series of vowels and consonants, which are to represent the numerical figures, so as to be able at pleasure to form a technical word, which shall stand for any number, or to resolve a word already formed into the number it stands for.































Here a and b stand for 1, e and d for 2, i and t for 3, and so on. These letters are assigned arbitrarily to the respective figures, and may very easily be remembred. The first five vowels in order naturally represent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The diphthong au being composed of a, 1, and u, 5, stands for 6; oi for 7, being composed of o, 4 and i, 3; ou for 9, being composed of o, 4 and u, 5: The diphthong ei will easily be remembered for 8, being the initials of the word. In like manner for the consonants, where the initials could conveniently be retained, they are made use of to signify the number, as t for 3, f for 4, s for 6, and n for nine. The rest were assigned without any particular reason, unless that possibly p may be more easily remembred for 7 or septem, k for 8, or Greek word, spelled: omicron + kappa + tau + omega, d for 2, or duo; b for 1, as being the first consonant, and l for 5, being the Roman letter for 50, than any others that could have been put in their places. Memor. Techn. p. 2, 3. ’Tis farther to be observed, that z and y being made use of to represent the cypher, where many cyphers meet together, as 1000, 1000000, &c. instead of a repetition of azyzyzy, &c. let g stand for 100, th for a thousand, and m for a million. Thus ag will be 100, ig 300; oug 900, &c. ath 1000, am 1000000, loum 59000000, &c. Ib. p. 5.

Fractions may be set down in the following manner: Let r signify the line separating the numerator and denominator, the first coming before, the other after it; as iro 3/4, urp 5/7, pourag 79/100, &c. When the numerator is 1 or unit, it need not be expressed, but begin the fraction with r; as re 1/2, ri 1/3, ro 1/4, &c. So in decimals, rag 1/100, rath 1/1000. Ibid. This is the principal part of the method, which consists in expressing numbers by artificial words. The application to history and chronology is also performed by artificial words. The art herein consists in making such a change in the ending of the name of a place, person, planet, coin, &c. without altering the beginning of it, as shall readily suggest the thing sought, at the same time that the beginning of the word, being preserved, shall be a leading or prompting syllable to the ending of it so changed. Thus, in order to remember the years in which Cyrus, Alexander, and Julius Caesar, founded their respective monarchies, the following words may be formed; for Cyrus, Cyruts; for Alexander, Alexita; for Julius Caesar, Julios. Uts signifies, according to the powers assigned to the letters before mentioned, 536; ita is 331, and os is 46. Hence it will be easy to remember, that the empire of Cyrus was founded 536 years before Christ, that of Alexander 331, and that of Julius Caesar 46. Mem. Techn. Introd. p. viii and ix.

For the farther application of this method, we refer to the ingenious author of the last cited book. We shall only add, that technical verses contribute much to the assistance of the Memory, both as they generally contain a great deal in a little compass, and also because, being once learned, they are seldom or never forgot. The author before quoted has given us several specimens of such verses in history, chronology, geography, and aftronomy, as alfo the Jewish, Grecian and Roman coins, weights and measures, &c. He advises his reader to form the words and verses for his own use himself; as he perhaps will better remember them than those formed by the author. Lib. citat. Introduct. p. xi.

It was a practice among the Jews not only to abbreviate sentences and names of many words, by putting together the initial letters of those words, and making out of them an artificial word to express the whole, as Rambam for Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; but they also made use of natural words to represent numbers, when they could meet with such as happened to answer the number which they wanted to express. It is to observations of this kind the author last quoted seems to say he owed the first hints of his method.

As to Simonides’s method, Quinctilian says he will not deny it to be of some use; for instance, in repeating a multitude of words in the order they occur, and in things of this nature: But he thinks it of less use in getting by heart a continued oration, and in this respect rather an incumbrance. He himself advises, if the speech to be remembred be long, to get it by heart in parts, and those not very small. The partition ought chiefly to be made according to the different topics. He thinks it best to get things by heart tacitly, and if, the better to fix the attention, the words be pronounced, yet it should be in a low voice. Apt divisions help the Memory greatly. But after all, the great art of Memory is exercise: To get many things by heart, and daily, if possible. Nothing increases more by use, or suffers more by neglect, than the Memory. At whatever age a man aims at the improvement of this faculty, he should patiently submit to the uneasy labour of repeating what he has read or written. Here, as in other cases, where habits are to be acquired, exercise should be increased by degrees.

Lord Bacon enumerates several helps to Memory as order, artificial place, verse, whatever brings an intellectual thing to strike the senses, and those things which make an impression by means of a strong passion, as fear, surprize, &c. Those things also sink deepest, and dwell longest in the Memory, which are impressed upon a clear mind unprejudiced either before or after the impression; as the things we learn in childhood, or think of just before going to sleep; as likewise the first times things are taken notice of.

A multitude of circumstances also, or, as it were, handles or holds to be taken, help the Memory; as the making many breaks in writing, reading or repeating aloud: But as to this last, see Quinctilian’s opinion before mentioned. Those things which are expected, and raise the attention, stick better than such as pass slightly over the mind; whence if a man reads any writing twenty times over, he will not remember it so well, as if he read it but ten times; with trying between whiles to repeat it, and consulting the copy where his Memory failed. Bacon’s Works abrid. vol. 2. p. 475. See also vol. 1. p. 135, 136. vol. 3. p. 176. and the article MNEMONIC Tables.

Weakness of the MEMORY, in many cases, is to be considered as a disease, and is looked on in that light by the medical writers, who have prescribed various remedies for it. The principal causes of this debility, are a too frequent and constrained use, or rather abuse of it, in the getting by rote numbers of words and syllables, particularly in the learning different languages; a paralytic affection in the head; violent external injuries in the same part; violent pains in the head, attended with deliriums, or attending a phrenitis. And to these are to be added drunkenness, and an abuse of venery.

Prognostics. All debilities of Memory are cured with great difficulty by medicines alone; and indeed this complaint is seldom removed, unless the whole frame of mind and course of life be altered; all passions avoided, and excess of every kind left off. But of all other kinds, that debility of Memory which proceeds from a paralytic disorder of the head, particularly when that disorder affects the tongue, is found to be the most obstinate and difficult of cure. Much sleep, or excessive waking, are equally hurtful to the Memory, and frequently bring on an almost total loss of it.

Method of treatment. All such medicines as are of an agreeable taste or odour, are generally supposed to be of service in strengthening the Memory; and lignum aloes, ambergrise, and some other of the scented drugs, have been known to do great good. The aromatic, volatile, and spirituous medicines, also all help in this case, if taken in small doses, and continued for a long time together. The analeptics and nervine medicines are also greatly recommended, but they are seldom found of use; for among people afflicted with a debility of Memory, many are those of robust constitutions and strong appetites, who eat already more than nature requires, and have therefore very little use for analeptics or nutritive things.

Bleedings in small quantities frequently repeated, in cases where there is no contrary indication, frequently prove of great service in this case; but the primae viae are first to be cleansed before such a course is entered upon. Many greatly recommend bags of aromatics to the head, to be constantly worn in caps; but it is much to be feared these can have but very little effect. Junck. Consp. Med. p. 682.

S U P P L E M E N T   A R T I C L E

Mnemonic Tables

(1753 edn., Vol. 2, n. pag.)

MNEMONIC Tables. Among the artifices to assist the memory, this is one of great use.

Mnemonic Tables exhibit in a regular manner, what is to be remembred of the same subject. And altho’ the sciences ought to be taught in a scientifical manner, as much as possible, and that every thing should be so placed as to be intelligible and demonstrable from what has preceded it; yet tables ought not to be rejected, as they are helps to retain the doctrines of which the mind has had sufficient evidence. In such tables the properties of things are to be expressed concisely; illustrations and demonstrations should be left out, as the proposition ought to have been made sufficiently clear and certain, before it is registred in the table. Hence the contents of such tables ought only to be the definitions, and the propositions relative to the subject. If a subject require a long table, this may be subdivided into smaller; by making first a table of the most general heads, and referring from (n. pag.) each of these heads to a separate table; by this means the order and connexion of the whole will be preferred. Such tables would produce a local and artificial memory, of great use to the retention and recollection of things. They would greatly facilitate a distinct view of the properties of their subjects, and facilitate recapitulation. Besides, as the expressions used in such tables ought to be very concise, so as just to be sufficient to excite the idea of the object to be remembered, soon after that idea has been acquired; after some time a certain obscurity will be found in perusing the tables, which will give us timely warning that our ideas begin to fade, and that they ought to be renewed. And this may be done without much trouble, if not too long delayed.

FINIS tail-piece from William Derham's 1726 edn., _Philosophical Experiments and Observations of the Late Eminent Dr. Robert Hooke_

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Part I: Editor’s Introduction for Library Cat. No. CYCL1728h pointer

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(Cycl.) — “[C]are has been taken to connect the Supplement with the Cyclopaedia, so as to make the whole in a manner but one work; it being always referred to for those articles which, having been treated of there, are here re-considered, and enlarged, or corrected; every such article having the syllable Cycl. annexed to it, as a direction to consult the Cyclopaedia first on that head.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 1, “To the Reader”) ::

Horstius — “De Sanitat. Studiosor. lib. 2. c. 1.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note a::

Ficinus — “De Vita, lib. 1. c. 25.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note b::

Johnston — “Johnston, Idea Medicin. Practic. lib. 8. c. 4. Vid. Pasch. de Nov. Invent. p. 134.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note c::

an old observation — “Quinctil. Inst. Orat. p. 992.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note d::

Simonides is said to be the first — “Quinct. lib. cit. p. 985.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note e) The citation is to Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria [The Education of the Orator], in 12 books. Quintilian here referred to Simonides of Ceos, c.556–468 BCE. ::

Cicero — “Ad Herenn. lib. 3.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note f::

Quinctilian — “Lib. cit.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note g) The citation is to Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria [The Education of the Orator], in 12 books. ::

published at Leipzig — “Variorum de Arte Memoriae Tractatus, Lips. 1678. 8°.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note h::

Bruxius’s Simonides Redivivus — “Polyhistor. lib. 1. p. 374, 375.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note i::

Morhof — “Adami Bruxii, Simonides Redivivus, seu Ars Memoriae & Oblivionis. Lips. 1640. in 4°.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note k::

Paschius — “Lib. cit. p. 133-140.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note l) The “Lib. cit.” to which the editors here refer is De novis inventis, quorum accuratiori cultui facem praetulit antiquitas (Leipzig, 1700), by Georg Pasch (1661–1707). ::

Paschius — “Lib. cit. p. 140. Numerus per certas literas, verbo memoriali comprehensas, exprimitur.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note m) The “Lib. cit.” to which the editors here refer is De novis inventis, quorum accuratiori cultui facem praetulit antiquitas (Leipzig, 1700), by Georg Pasch (1661–1707). ::

in England — “Vid. Memoria Technica, or a New Method of Artificial Memory, &c. Lond. 1730. 8°. also Lowe’s Mnemonics.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note n::

express — “Mem. Tech. Introd. p. xv, xvi.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note a::

his method — “Lib. cit. p. xvii.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note b::

he thinks — “Nonne impediri eorum, quae dicit, decursum necesse est duplici memoriae cura? Nam quomodo poterunt copulata fluere, si propter singula verba ad singulas formas respiciendum erit. Quinct. Inst. Orat. Lib. xi. c. 2. p. 989.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note a::

increased by degrees — “Quinct. loc. cit. p. 993. seq.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note b) The citation is to Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria [The Education of the Orator], in 12 books. ::

sufficient evidence — “Wolf. Psycol. Empir. §. 200. not. p. 140.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note a::

if not too long delayed — “Vid. Tabul. Mnem. Construct. & usus ap. Wolf. Horae subseciv. Marburg. An. 1730. Trim. AEstiv. p. 468. seq.” (A Supplement to Mr. Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, 1753, vol. 2, s.v. Memory, note b::