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Learn more about the symbolism of the 17th-century head-piece, to the left (at the start of this Web page’s text column) = an etching by Wenceslaus Hollar, depicting the Three Furies (avenging truth) and Cerberus (loyal watchdog, whose 3 heads represent the past, the present & the future).

For alternate symbolic representations of past-present-future mindfulness, see the IN BRIEF topics on prudentia and phronesis.

Cornelis Drebbel is one of She-philosopher.​com’s featured “Players.” Learn more here.

For more about the role of Fair Use in protecting (and developing) our intellectual commons, see the book Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), by Patricia Aufderheide and Peter Jaszi (ISBN-10: 0226032280 and ISBN-13: 978-0226032283).
   “Reclaiming Fair Use begins by surveying the landscape of contemporary copyright law — and the dampening effect it can have on creativity — before laying out how the fair-use principle can be employed to avoid copyright violation. Finally, Aufderheide and Jaszi summarize their work with artists and professional groups to develop best practice documents for fair use and discuss fair use in an international context. Appendixes address common myths about fair use and provide a template for creating the reader’s own best practices.”
   Reclaiming Fair Use was 1 of 2 books on copyright law for the digital age reviewed by Caleb Crain in the 2/6/2012 issue of The Nation (“Fair and Balanced,” vol. 294, no. 6, pp. 32–5); Crain’s review is available online here.


First Published:  April 2004
Revised (substantive):  9 July 2016

Opening quotation markUse Thy Gifts Rightly.Closing quotation mark

 CORNELIS DREBBEL (1572–1633)

This motto was inscribed, along with Drebbel’s monogram, on his many instruments and inventions, ranging from: a perpetual-motion machine “representing the motion of the Heavens about the fixed earth,” air conditioning, an incubator, the thermometer, “an instrument to sink ships,” the first microscope, and several different types of camera; to the first sea-worthy submarine, which in 1620 traveled down the Thames from Westminster to Greenwich under the surface of the water, with an 8-person crew and 12 passengers kept alive by Drebbel’s mysterious on-board manufacture of breathable air, 150 years before the “discovery” of oxygen in the early 1770s.

17th-century head-piece depicting the Three Furies (avenging truth) and Cerberus (loyal watchdog, whose 3 heads represent the past, the present & the future), by Wenceslaus Hollar

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facsimile of ornament from Book IV of John Bate's _The Mysteryes of Nature and Art_ (1634)

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